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Vocoid
發布時間:2019年08月16日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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Vocoid

元音

 

A term invented by the American phonetician Kenneth Pike (1912-2000) to help distinguish between the phonetic and the phonological notions of vowel. Phonetically, a vowel is defined as a sound lacking any closure or narrowing sufficient to produce audible friction. Phonologically, it is a unit which functions at the centre of syllable. In cases such as [l], [r], [w] and [j], however, these criteria do not coincide: these sounds are phonetically vowel-like, but their function is consonantal. To avoid possible confusion, Pike proposed the term ‘vocoid’ for sounds which are characterized by a phonetic definition such as the above; the term ‘vowel’ is the reserved for the phonological sense. Its opposite is contoid. Since the 1980s, the term has become fashionable in feature geometry models of phonology, where it is often used to designate one of the two chief classes of segments (the other being consonants).

 

美國語音學家肯尼思·派克(生于1912)發明的一個術語,用來區分語音學和音系學意義上的元音。語音學上元音定義為沒有閉塞或收窄程度不足以產生可聞摩擦的音。音系學上元音的功能是充當音節的中心。但是遇到[l],[r],[w],[j]這些音,上述兩個標準有抵觸:這些音語音上類似元音,而功能上類似輔音。為避免可能引起的混淆,派克建議用vocoid指按上述語音學標準定義的元音,而原來的vowel則指音系學意義上的元音。與元音(vocoid)對立的是輔音。自80年代以來,這個術語流行于音系學的各種特征構架模型,常用來指兩大類音段中的一類(另一類是輔音(consonant))。

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